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Altschul, I., Oyserman, D. & Bybee, D. (2006) Racial-Ethnic Identity in Mid-Adolescence: Content and Change as Predictors of Academic Achievement. Child Development, 77(5), 1155-1169.

What diversity/subjectivity topics are they discussing?

Strength of racial-ethnic identity: connectedness, awareness of racism, and feeling of importance of academic achievement

Your summary or comments on the article

A good demonstration of a way to think about racial-ethnic identity (REI). REI changes during mid-adolescence and is positively correlated with academic achievement. The idea of “embedded achievement” is a good concept to measure the group values and norms about school. Very interesting that positive awareness of identity and of racism was positively related to achievement. To some extent REI buffers youth from declines in achievement.


Three aspects of racial‐ethnic identity (REI)—feeling connected to one’s racial‐ethnic group (Connectedness), being aware that others may not value the in‐group (Awareness of Racism), and feeling that one’s in‐group is characterized by academic attainment (Embedded Achievement)—were hypothesized to promote academic achievement. Youth randomly selected from 3 low‐income, urban schools (n=98 African American, n=41 Latino) reported on their REI 4 times over 2 school years. Hierarchical linear modeling shows a small increase in REI and the predicted REI–grades relationship. Youth high in both REI Connectedness and Embedded Achievement attained better grade point average (GPA) at each point in time; youth high in REI Connectedness and Awareness of Racism at the beginning of 8th grade attained better GPA through 9th grade. Effects are not moderated by race‐ethnicity.

Resource contributed by:

Tom Holman

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